National reports

Canada’s economic policy continues to take reduction of the debt and deficit as its primary end. The means to this end include cuts to social infrastructure spending, public sector employment and the health and welfare institutions that used to put Canada near the top of most international measures of well-being. Under cover of deficit reduction, the Government of Canada continues to withdraw funding from the civil society organizations and research institutions that measure the effectiveness of those government policies and provide alternatives to them. On the international stage, Canada has championed austerity measures for countries facing economic crisis, Canadian foreign aid has been in decline while the Government's criticism of multi-lateral institutions for international cooperation increases.
Since the end of the Korean War in 1950, the country has achieved sustained economic growth. GDP, which at that time was US$ 67, doubled in a decade, between 2000 and 2010, Korea joined the OECD in 1996 and achieved most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). But inequality, as a side effect of economic growth, is present. There is no more extreme poverty but diversified poverty, and society still has challenges that are not shown by the indicators. The government's economic policy has encouraged assembling industry export-oriented with cheap labor. Between 2000 and 2009, relative poverty rates for children, seniors and women increased. Poverty is concentrated in the elderly at female level, low education, vulnerable health and in rural areas. It is clear that the government needs to implement policies to reduce socioeconomic inequality that go beyond reducing inequity and poverty, by creating quality jobs and social protection programs.
Tanzania is endowed with abundant natural resources but lacks mechanisms for utilizing them effectively for micro and macro development. Invitation to foreign and local companies to invest in key economic sectors is yet to yield expected results. For instance, incentives and tax evasions are so high. The government is therefore urged to diversify the economy and find more viable and alternative sources of revenues for economic development.
Experiences of farmer organizations and people’s organizations over the last 15 years show that ecological agriculture is a very effective way of overcoming hunger and poverty and of reducing ill health, and ecological destruction caused by conventional chemical farming. Over a hundred organizations of farmers, fishers, women, plantation workers and industrial workers have struggled in Sri Lanka for a more logical, workable and people friendly approach and strategy for economic improvement, reduction of poverty and hunger and for social justice. Today they are able to present a very workable alternative approach to the economy and development process in the country. It has succeeded in getting the Government to accept some aspects of this strategy at least as election promises. It is a strategy that is relevant to the current world situation and a strategy that can be worked out to a considerable degree.
El Informe gubernamental de avance 2010 sobre los ODM en México subraya que la mayoría de los indicadores asociados a los ODM y a sus metas mejoraron significativamente, afirmando haber cumplido con la mayoría y previendo cumplir el resto para 2015. No obstante los avances, el Informe indica que aún queda un largo camino por recorrer: persiste la desigualdad en el ingreso y las condiciones de pobreza y vulnerabilidad en que aún viven muchas familias; es necesario reducir la mortalidad materna, consolidar la equidad de género; sigue pendiente el reto vital del medio ambiente y un mayor crecimiento económico. Desde la perspectiva de organizaciones civiles y sociales el panorama nacional de pobreza, desigualdad y violaciones a los derechos económicos, sociales, culturales y ambientales, pone en cuestión la efectividad de la política social que se ha venido implementando y revela las limitaciones del enfoque de los ODM. La administración federal que regirá al país de 2013 a 2018 tiene una oportunidad inmejorable de redefinir el rumbo.
El cumplimiento de los ODM en Nicaragua está en inminente peligro debido a las serias dificultades que enfrenta en virtud de varios factores, como el escaso crecimiento económico, el aumento de la población que demanda alimentos y trabajo, y la creciente corrupción. Aunque hay avances en algunos de ellos, no son suficientes y no se acercan a la meta. El modelo agroexportador, que hasta hoy solo ha generado empleos precarios e informales que condenan a vivir bajo el umbral de la pobreza a las personas que los desempeñan, y un sistema tributario regresivo le están cerrando al país la posibilidad de aprovechar la oportunidad histórica de la transición democrática.
Costa Rica ha presentado hacia el exterior una imagen de país sostenible y comprometido con el medio ambiente, pero la realidad interna es muy distinta. La tensión entre la conservación y la actividad productiva provocan una creciente conflictividad social por el uso del territorio. Como un ejemplo del (in)cumplimiento de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio abordamos el caso de la producción agroindustrial de piña, que ha ido sitiando comunidades y zonas protegidas, y desplazando a cultivos tradicionales de importancia alimentaria. Causa gran preocupación, además, el paquete tecnológico agrotóxico utilizado sistemáticamente, que provoca la contaminación de fuentes hídricas. Entre 2003 y 2009 se presentaron más de 120 denuncias contra la producción piñera ante el Tribunal Ambiental Administrativo y el Ministerio de Ambiente, Energía y Telecomunicaciones.
Making livelihood after taking
construction training.(Photo: RRN)

Evidence in Nepal suggests that the root causes of the political conflict include not only the severity of poverty and inequality but also the sense of entrenchment - that opportunities are limited or non-existent for the poor to climb out of poverty.

Therefore, addressing constraints on the inclusiveness of development is critical in order to make a real difference in the lives of Nepalis and reduce the risks of instability.

The Finnish government wants to be an accountable member of the international community, but its political will to be so does not always transpire. Finland has not, for example, been able to reach the 0.7 % target for its development funding.

Pineapple. (Photo: coecoceiba.org)

Costa Rica has an outward image of sustainable country, committed to the environment; but the inner reality is very different.

The tension between conservation and productive activities cause increasing social unrest because of land use. As an example of (un) fulfillment of the Millennium Development Goals we address the case of agroindustrial production of pineapple, which has been besieging communities and protected areas, and displacing traditional crops of nourishing importance.

The technological package of agrochemicals used systematically is causing great concern, as it causes contamination of water sources.

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